Form of renewable energy derived from recently living organic materials know as biomass. Bioenergy can be used to produce transportation fuels, heat, electricity, and products. Products include Wood, Waste, Landfill Gas and Ethanol.
Waste is biomass waste which includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, etc. Before 2001, waste also includes non-biomass waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources and tire-derived fuels)
British thermal unit (Btu)
The quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water one-degree Fahrenheit. Because different energy types use different standards of measurement, this unit provides a common denominator for quantifying all types of energy on an equivalent energy content basis. One Btu is equal to 252 calories of heat energy.
Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock with a high amount of carbon and hydrocarbons classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source due to it taking many years to form from layers of dirt and rock covered the plants over millions of years. The resulting pressure and heat turned the plants into the substance we call coal.
The part of the energy-using sector of the economy that engages primarily in providing goods and services other than manufacturing. The commercial sector includes both private and public entities, and is made up of apartment and office buildings, governmental units, schools, institutions, churches, hotels, restaurants, and retail stores are included.
Values that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in inflation. The price paid for a product or service in the present value of the constant dollar year. Also referred to as real dollars.
A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation.
Includes both publicly and privately-owned generating plants in the State.
Any ultimate consumption of any type of energy source including fossil fuels (petroleum, coal, natural gas) or electricity, whether generated by fossil fuel or other energy sources. End-users are often classified by economic sector, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation.
The ultimate end-use of mechanical energy to run an appliance, power a light bulb, turn the axle of a vehicle, heat or cool a building, etc.
The energy that is not used in these mechanical processes and is burned off or rejected as waste energy. Energy losses are calculated as the difference between energy input for electricity generation and energy from retail electricity sales.
Ethanol intended for fuel use. Fuel ethanol in the United States must be anhydrous (less than 1 percent water). Fuel ethanol is denatured (made unfit for human consumption), usually prior to transport from the ethanol production facility, by adding 2 to 5 volume percent petroleum, typically pentanes plus or conventional motor gasoline. Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative-fuel vehicles specially designed for its use.
Thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs can be used for geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or electricity generation.
One million kilowatt-hours, or one billion watt-hours. Unit of measure for amount of electricity generated or used.
A prefix used to identify a type of generating station, power, or energy output in which the prime energy source is water.
That section of the energy-using economy involved in or associated with either mining, construction, or manufacturing.
Includes both naphtha and kerosene-type jet fuels that meet standards for use in aircraft turbine engines. Some jet fuel is used for generating electricity in gas turbines.
A petroleum middle distillate with burning properties suitable for use as an illuminant when burned in wick lamps. Kerosene also is used in space heaters, cooking stoves, and water heaters and to reduce viscosity of distillate fuels during winter.
Landfill Gas (LFG)
Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. Biomass waste includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources such as LFG.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Propane, propylene, butane and propane-butane mixtures produced at a refinery or natural gas-processing plant, including plants that fractionate raw natural gas-processing plant liquids. These are derived by refining and processing natural gas, crude oil, or unfinished oil.
Motor gasoline (ex Ethanol)
A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons, with or without small quantities of additives that have been blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Leaded and unleaded refinery products are included. Exclusive of ethanol.
A general term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122°F and 400°F.
An odorless, colorless, tasteless, non-toxic clean-burning fossil fuel, widely used to generate electricity and used directly by end-use customers to provide space heat, water heating, and cooking.
Net Energy Consumption
The energy consumed at the end-use location (e.g., building or vehicle), including electricity as well as the fuels burned to provide space heat, water heat, etc. “Net” energy accounts for electricity based on the heat content of energy at the plug (3,412 Btu per kWh), and excludes the heat losses incurred during generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. Adding the heat losses associated with electricity use to “net” energy results in “primary” energy.
Net Imported Electricity
Total energy requirements minus applicable fuels. This aggregated gives total imports for electricity within the state. Negative imports represent exports.
Values that have not been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in inflation. The price paid for a product or service at the time of the transaction.
Inclusive of aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending components, naphtha used as petrochemical feedstocks, other oil used as petrochemical feedstocks, still gas, still gas used as petrochemical feedstocks, special naphtha’s, unfinished oils, waxes, and miscellaneous petroleum products.
The energy liberated by fission, fusion or radioactive decay.
A general term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oil, and refined non-hydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and heating oil.
A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking. This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton.
Primary Energy Consumption
The total consumption of fuels, including the fuels used to generate electricity. “Primary” energy accounts for electricity based on the equivalent heat content of fuel at the generator. Subtracting the heat losses associated with electricity generation, transmission, and distribution from “primary” energy results in “net” energy.
Products made from processing crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids and other miscellaneous hydrocarbon compounds. Includes aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha
and kerosene-type jet fuels, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, ethane, liquefied petroleum gases, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphtha’s, lubricants, paraffin wax, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas and miscellaneous products.
The part of the economy having to do with the places people stay or live. The residential sector is made up of homes, apartments, condominiums, etc. including private households. Specifically included are the following end-uses: space heating and cooling, water heating, cooking, lighting, clothes drying, and refrigeration.
Values that have been adjusted to remove the effect of inflation or changes in the purchasing power of the dollar. Also referred to as constant dollars because the adjustments equalize and make the cost of commodities comparable over time.
The heavier oils that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are boiled off in refinery operations. Included are products known as No. 5 and 6 fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, Navy Special Fuel Oil, Bunker C oil and acid sludge and pitch used as refinery fuels. Residual fuel oil is used for production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering, and various industrial purposes.
A technology that directly converts light energy radiated by the sun as electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic radiation) into electricity by means of solar electric (also known as photovoltaic or PV) panels or concentrating (focusing) collectors.
A technology that collects heat energy from the sun to heat water. Solar thermal energy is used for space heating; domestic hot water heating; and heating swimming pools, hot tubs, or spas.
An energy-consuming sector that consists of all vehicles whose primary purpose is transporting people and/or goods from one physical location to another. Included are automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, trains, subways, other rail vehicles, aircraft, ships, barges, and other waterborne vehicles. Vehicles whose primary purpose is not transportation (e.g., construction cranes, bulldozers, farming vehicles, and warehouse tractors and forklifts) are classified in the sector of their primary use.
Trillion British Thermal Units (TBtu)
1,000,000,000,000, or 1012 British Thermal Units .
Wood and wood products used as fuel, including round wood (cord wood), limb wood, wood chips, bark, saw dust, forest residues, charcoal, pulp waste, and spent pulping liquor.