The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Since that time, participating nations have created the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and negotiated several international agreements including the Kyoto Protocol, under which 15 European countries (the EU15) agree to reduce their collective emissions by 8% below 1990 levels by the end of 2012. The EU15 have also considered or enacted other international policy initiatives, including requiring the use of renewable energy, revising emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, incorporating civil aviation into emissions trading schemes, and developing techniques for carbon capture and geological storage.
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