A number of EMEP projects under contract or approved for contracting will evaluate the potential for CCS in various locations around New York State. NYSERDA is investing $1.7 million in this research effort; this funding is leveraged with an additional $2.3 million in co-funding from research partners. A current project with the geologists at the New York State Museum is performing a statewide assessment of New York's geological sequestration potential, including shale formations. An upcoming EMEP project will build on this project and will evaluate gas shale formations for CO2 sequestration and enhanced gas recovery potential throughout the state. Two other projects will characterize the geology of two sections of western New York to determine if sequestration is possible there. A fifth project will assess the potential for long-term CO2 storage in central New York, where there are already a number of coal-fired generation facilities; this project will also evaluate the potential for EGR in the area's deep sandstone gas reservoirs.
Regional Assessment of Gas Potential in the Marcellus/Utica Shale, New York
The Devonian Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician Utica Shale may hold significant untapped reserves of natural gas in New York State. The goal of this project is to assess the potential of the Marcellus, Utica, and related formations for carbon sequestration and enhanced gas recovery (EGR) through an integrated statewide stratigraphic study. A series of maps and cross sections will be produced to identify the areas of greater potential. All of the results of the statewide study will be presented in a digital format and made available to the public for free on the Empire State Oil and Gas Information System (ESOGIS). The Museum has produced a preliminary report on storage potential in New York.
Evaluating the Potential for CO2 Sequestration in New York's Gas Shales
This project aims to complete a comprehensive geologic characterization and an engineering and economic evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity of NY's carbonaceous marine shale formations. It will be a basin-study type analysis, building upon previous work by NYSERDA and the NYS Museum by using detailed geologic analysis, targeted shale sampling and well testing, and reservoir simulations. The project will entail the following: 1) characterize geology of the Marcellus and Utica shales; 2) collect new data related to CO2 storage and natural-gas production from new shale wells in NY; 3) model reservoirs for both natural-gas production and CO2 injection; 4) describe economic constraints to sequestration; 5) assess "advanced" approaches for development; and 6) develop an independent, basin-wide assessment of the CO2 storage potential in NY gas shales.
Carbon Sequestration Feasibility Study in the Chautauqua County, New York Area
This project will conduct a feasibility study to determine the capacity for long-term storage of CO2 in the area of Chautauqua County, NY. The project will carry out seismic studies that are necessary to determine sequestration feasibility in the geological of the area. This project will also develop a permitting roadmap for sequestration, evaluate costs and potential benefits, and assess legal and insurance issues surrounding sequestration. To date, Ecology and Environment has produced a white paper on developing a CCS regulatory strategy in NYS.
CO2 Sequestration: Capacity, Security & Enhanced Gas Recovery in Central New York State
This project aims to determine the capacity for long-term CO2 storage in various geologic formations in central NYS. It will focus on formations in three critical regions of Central NYS where there are already a number of coal-fired generation facilities. There will be a particular emphasis on understanding the factors that will make geologic sequestration safe and cost-effective. This will be accomplished by: 1) targeting horizon geology and physical-chemical characteristics of potential reservoirs; 2) studying the behavior of supercritical CO2 and H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids in reservoirs; 3) determining the probable efficacy of using CO2 injection for EGR in NYS deep sandstone gas reservoirs; 4) inventorying the fault and fracture systems in the targeted counties; and 5) compiling literature related to CO2 monitoring.
Other Sequestration Initiatives at NYSERDA
Other, more innovative ways of keeping CO2 out of the atmosphere are also in the early stages of research and are aimed at advancing long-term research goals.
Permanent CO2 Sequestration in Ocean Sediments: Flow-Through Reactor Studies (Project Update.pdf)
The goal of this project is to show the potential viability of CO2 storage in ocean sediments through the study of the flow behavior of liquid CO2 within brine-saturated ocean sediments. This is NOT the idea of injecting "bubbles" of CO2 that will settle on the ocean floor. The concept for this project is essentially the same as onshore geological sequestration, but the CO2 would be injected deep into ocean sediments. Some of the mechanics are slightly different for injecting into ocean sediments rather than onshore rock formations, so this project will study the chemical reactions between CO2, pore fluid, and sediments, as well as the formation of CO2 hydrates.
Disposing of Greenhouse Gases through Mineralization Utilizing the Wollastonite Deposits of NYS (Project Update.pdf)
A chemical reaction between CO2 and a mineral called wollastonite can essentially "trap" the CO2 by forming a different mineral that incorporates the carbon and oxygen of the gas. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate that process adjustments can lower the currently high cost of CO2 mineralization using wollastonite. An estimate of sequestration capacity using wollastonite in NYS will be produced, based on previous tasks and on data obtained from mining companies, geological surveys, and existing literature. Although wollastonite is not common worldwide, one of the largest deposits is in NYS. Also, it is hoped that the same process adjustments that could make wollastonite conversion economical could also be applied to more abundant minerals to trap CO2