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Research Project Information

Research Project Summary Information

Demonstration & Evaluation of Emission Control Technology for Non-Road Equipment(ST8958-1)

Southern Research Institute


Diesel engines can be highly energy efficient and durable, yet emissions from diesel engines have historically contributed to a number of serious air pollution problems. Recognizing this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency passed regulations to reduce emissions from new diesel engines for on-road and, more recently, non-road applications. These regulations were phased-in starting in 2006 and require the use of low sulfur diesel fuel. Existing diesel engines, however, in the on-road and non-road inventory, will continue to emit higher levels of pollutants including particulate matter, NOx, CO, and air toxics without use of anti-idling technologies, new fuel formulations, and retrofit pollution control technologies. Several local and state initiatives and laws have been introduced, which focus on reducing pollution from existing diesel engines (e.g., New York City local law 77 imposes specific emissions regulations for non-road equipment). The NYSDEC through the NYSERDA/NYSDEC Memorandum of Understanding (No. 8875) are active participants in the project including: reviewing emission inventory survey designs; developing field test protocols, reviewing retrofit technology assessments, and undertaking in-use field test of control technologies. In addition, the NYC Department of Sanitation installed emission control technologies and provided personnel to operate construction equipment for in-use testing.

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Project Description

Objectives include: 1) improve the accuracy of non-road sector emission inventory in New York State; 2) assess the technical suitability, the cost and energy consequences of commercially available retrofit options; 3)identify applications of commercially available retrofit technologies with the greatest potential air quality improvement and need at lowest cost; 4) develop a field test research plan that maximizes the number of retrofit technologies and equipment applications that can be assessed; 5) define an in-use field test protocol; 6) develop an field test based technology evaluation plan; and 7)conduct in-use field demonstration program with the participation of equipment owners/operators and emission control technology vendors.


The project provides a technically sound assessment of diesel emission control technologies for use in non-road construction equipment applications to help policy makers in New York develop air quality management plans for fine particulates, NOX, and other air quality parameters. The results of the project provide information to the NYSDEC and the NYCDEP, which can be used to modify the Non-Road Emissions Inventory in NYS and refine guidelines for Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for non-road construction equipment used in projects in NYC as required under Local Law 77.

Project Results

1. Locomotive Inventory: A survey of freight railroads, passenger and commuter rail lines operating in NYS found total diesel emissions of NOx in 2002 to be 78% greater than National Emissions Inventory estimate, and 92% greater than NONROAD2004 Model (NR04) estimate. Locomotives contribute about 22% rather than 13% of the total NR04 Model NOx emissions. A report was provided to NYSDEC for review and has been incorporated in state air quality policy decision making documents. 2. NYC Metropolitan Area Construction Equipment Population Survey: The population estimate for six of the top-14 significant types of construction equipment was 36% of that allocated by the NR04 Model. 8,052 entities expected to own or use construction equipment in the New York Metropolitan Statistical Area were randomly surveyed. The estimates had a relative standard error 30% or less at 95% confidence interval. A report was provided to NYSDEC who shared the analysis with EPA OTAQ. 3. In-Use Field testing of EPA-verified emission control technologies: In all cases in-use testing results, based repeatable duty cycles, were similar to verified emission reduction performance measured in the laboratory. 4. In-Use Field testing of Biodiesel: 100% Biodiesel showed a significant increase in NOx emissions per test compared to ultralow sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD), Biodiesel and a 50:50 blend.


Southern Research Institute
MCS #215 PO Box 10992, Lock Box #992215
Birmingham, AL 35202

Principle Investigator

Tim Hansen

Universities Involved


Project Type:

Research Study

Technologies Types:

NYSERDA Contact Information

Barry Liebowitz


R&D -Transport & Power Systems

Contract Details

Start Date: 1/11/2010
Project Status: Active
Contract Number: ST8958-1

Last Updated: 6/28/2013